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  • Open access
  • 51 Reads
Transcriptomic Diversity of Solanum tuberosum Varieties: A Drive towards Future Analysis of Its Polyploidy Genome

Despite the significance of potatoes in combating hunger and ensuring global food security, their potential for fostering a sustainable society has not been fully exploited due to its complex biological system as a polyploid. Therefore, there is a need for a more gene-informed potato breeding program to improve yields, nutrient content and other market characteristics. This study aimed at analysing the RNA-seq data from leaf samples of four potato varieties annotated as HJ, HL, LS and V7, to understand the transcriptomic diversity among the varieties. A pipeline was developed and used for the analyses of the fragments reads from each potato variety. A significant amount (>85%) of fragment reads in all samples were mapped to the reference genome. Out of 27,356 gene features obtained from this study, 65.93% were expressed in all samples, and 4.5% were unique to individual potato species. Although all potato varieties' top 10 expressed genes were associated with chloroplastic proteins/enzymes, other highly unique genes are yet to be fully annotated. Furthermore, the result from fold-change analysis, hierarchical-cluster plot and heatmap showed potato varieties HJ as the most distant species, while potato varieties HL and V7 are most similar. More so, the heatmap showed that genes expressed in HJ had the most similar cluster among themselves. Although limited by the unavailability of phenotype information and sample replicates, this study has shown that potato varieties, even with the same polyploid number, express a significant level of diversity in their transcriptome under the same condition.

  • Open access
  • 41 Reads
Protective Roles of Applied Selenium in Different Plants Grown under Boron Deficient and Toxic Conditions

Various problems arise in plants that are exposed to stress factors causing cellular damage. Plants have developed various adaptive mechanisms against deficiency or excess of different plant nutrients, including boron deficiency or toxicity. Oxidative damage can be prevented by increasing stress tolerance in plants through these mechanisms. In addition, various elements play protective roles in the plant by increasing the biochemical activities responsible for the functioning of these mechanisms. Selenium, one of them, is an important trace element for humans, animals and plants. In this study, three genotypes [Tokak-Hamidiye (Barley), and Yellow Bride (Soy)] with two different structures (Monocotyl-Dicotyl) were used. In addition to deficient (0 mM) and toxic (1 mM) boron concentrations, 2 different doses of selenium were applied to the genotypes (0.1 ppm and 0.5 ppm). It was determined that the growth parameters of plants were suppressed in both B-deficient and toxic conditions. In addition, the relative water content of plants decreased in all plants under B toxicity conditions. On the other hand, increases were observed in both the growth values and the relative water content of the plant compared to the control conditions of the stressed groups with external selenium applications. Due to selenium applications, radical accumulation was suppressed and these radicals were also swept away with the increased activity of important antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. It was determined that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was suppressed in Tokak and Hamidiye genotypes under boron deficiency and toxic conditions, but increased in Sarı bride. As a result of this study, it is seen that Selenium increases stress tolerance in plants with different characteristics under boron deficiency and toxic conditions.

  • Open access
  • 28 Reads
Comparative Taxonomic Study of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile (Zygophyllaceae)

Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile or desert date (Zygophyllaceae) is widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions in Africa and South Asia. It is native to all drylands south of the Sahara desert. It is a prickly tree that plays an important role in conserving and renewing damaged vegetation cover. According to previous studies, B. aegyptiaca were identified for five varieties based on the leaflet colour, the pubescent, the spine length, the number of flowers per inflorescence, and the fruit size and shape. Recently, the varieties were reduced into two, depending on the characters mentioned above and the insertion of inflorescence. The current study aimed to verify the infra-specific variation between B. aegyptiaca samples collected from Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A complementary approach using a detailed macro- and micromorphological analysis of leaflets, petioles, stems, spines, and fruits was performed for comparative studies in plant collections using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analysis was carried by using R- software. The preliminary results showed a remarkable variation in the leaflet area and shape, the number of the leaflet vascular bundles, the presence/ absence of cavities in the petiole cross-section, the stomatal characters, and the type and density of both trichomes and the epicuticular waxes.

  • Open access
  • 27 Reads
Novel Formula as Mosquito Larvicide

Background: Natural products derived from plants and secondary metabolites from microorganism can promise for the discovery of synthetic analogs with improved efficacy, potency, and safety. Our study attempted to study the effect of new formula as mosquito larvicide. Methods: Isolation and characterization of Prodigiosin and essential oil from Thuja orientalis and purification of PDG. Investigating the dose response bioassay, the synergistic effect, and the mode of action for each preparation. Results: The treatment of the 3rd larva stage of Cx. pipiens revealed that LC50 of PDG and T. orientalis leaves’ E.O were (39.5 ± 0.341 ppm &102.9 ± 0.46 ppm respectively) after 24 hours. The combination of LC10 of PDG with LC25 & LC50 of the E.O. showed a synergistic effect resulting in 33.3% and 100% of death, respectively. Individual and combination treatment showed reduction in the activity of acetylcholine esterase, total protein and AChE specific gravity as compared to untreated 3rd larva stage of Cx. pipiens. PDG and E.O. resulted in reduction in midgut pH leading to cellular respiration inhibition as compared to untreated larvae that showed alkaline medium. Conclusions: So PDG and the T. orientails leaves’ oil combination showed a promising synergistic potency against the 3rd larva stage of Cx. pipiens.